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                惯性导航微系统三维集成研究进展

                王楷 孔延梅 蒋鹏 杜向斌 叶雨欣 鞠莉娜 曹志勇 刘瑞文 焦斌斌

                王楷,孔延梅,蒋鹏,等.惯性导航微系统三维集成研究进展[J]. 微电子学与计算机,2023,40(1):18-30 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0594
                引用本文: 王楷,孔延梅,蒋鹏,等.惯性导航微系统三维集成研究进展[J]. 微电子学与计算机,2023,40(1):18-30 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0594
                WANG K,KONG Y M,JIANG P,et al. A review on 3D integration of inertial navigation microsystem[J]. Microelectronics & Computer,2023,40(1):18-30 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0594
                Citation: WANG K,KONG Y M,JIANG P,et al. A review on 3D integration of inertial navigation microsystem[J]. Microelectronics & Computer,2023,40(1):18-30 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0594

                惯性导航微系统三维集成研究进展

                doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0594
                详细信息
                  作者简介:

                  王楷:男,(1997-),硕士研究生. 研究」方向为惯性微系统三维集成

                  孔延梅:女 ,(1982-),博士,副研究员. 研究方向为MEMS与传感器系统

                  蒋鹏:男,(1991-),硕士,工程师. 研究方向为MEMS传感器与微系统

                  杜向斌:男,(1993-),硕士,助理工程师. 研究方向为集成电路芯片系统级封装

                  叶雨欣:男,(1988-),博士,助理研究员. 研究方向为微系统及散热技术

                  刘瑞文:男, (1984-),博士,副研究员. 研究方向为MEMS传感器,微电子机械系统,微细加工技术,微系统集成

                  焦斌斌:男, (1981-),博士,研究员. 研究方向为微机电系统设计与加工、传感器信号处理与多传感器融合、微系统集成与散热技术

                  通讯作者:

                  女 ,(1980-),博士,研究员. 研究方向为MEMS传感器与微系统. E-mail:yuanyuan_514@126.com

                  男,(1972-),博士,副教授. 研究方向为材料工程与计算机应用. E-mail:caozy@hubu.edu.cn

                • 中图分类号: TN42

                A review on 3D integration of inertial navigation microsystem

                • 摘要:

                  随着“摩尔定律”日趋放缓,微系统封装集成技术成为“超越摩尔”最有前景的技术之一. 惯性微系统技术是在微机电系统(MEMS)基础上,将多种传感器通过异质异构集成技术,在硅基片←上进行3D集成,开发出具有多种功能的芯片级的微小型电子系统,实现更高的集成度和更小的体积,并内置算法,实现芯片级导航、定位等功能. 该系统通过自身传感器采集到的数据信息进行自主导航,不受外界环境影响,具有很强的抗干扰能力,呈现出小型化、智能化趋势. 本文主要探讨了惯性微系统的组成部分以及MEMS惯性传感器的常见分类. 通过对国内外研究现状的梳理,重点分析了以第三代集成技术为主的惯性微系统集成的特点和研究进展.文章最后探讨了惯性微系统未来的研究方向和发展趋势.

                   

                • 图 1  微系统概念

                  Figure 1.  Microsystem concept

                  图 2  MICRO-PNT微系统研究目标

                  Figure 2.  MICRO-PNT microsystem research objectives

                  图 3  MEMS惯性传感器集成技术

                  Figure 3.  MEMS inertial sensor integration technology

                  图 4  二维微系统集成方MCM案

                  Figure 4.  MCM case of two-dimensional microsystem integration

                  图 5  MS9000加速度计的内部视图

                  Figure 5.  Interior view of the MS9000 acceleromete

                  图 6  Sensonor公司IBG21陀螺

                  Figure 6.  Sensonor IBG21 gyroscope

                  图 7  SiP集成方案

                  Figure 7.  SiP integration scheme

                  图 8  组装的SAR500封装图

                  Figure 8.  Assembled SAR500 package diagram

                  图 9  基于TSV的三维集成

                  Figure 9.  3D integration based on TSV

                  图 10  三维分立封装技术

                  Figure 10.  3D discrete packaging technology

                  图 11  折叠式MEMS金字塔IMU的原型

                  Figure 11.  Prototype of collapsible MEMS pyramid IMU

                  图 12  3-D折叠MEMS IMU结构的制造方法

                  Figure 12.  Manufacturing method of 3-D folded MEMS IMU

                  图 13  设想的堆叠封装图

                  Figure 13.  shows the envisioned stack packaging diagram

                  图 14  堆叠封装的原理图横截面

                  Figure 14.  Schematic cross section of stack package

                  图 15  3D 配置折叠的制造TIMU原型

                  Figure 15.  3D configuration folded manufacturing TIMU prototype

                  表  1  具有SWaP与环境适应性的DARPA AIMS项目指标

                  Table  1.   DARPA AIMS project indicators with SWaP & Survival Metric

                  SWaP与环境适应性目标1目标2
                  体积/cm311
                  重量/g11
                  功耗/mW250250
                  工作温度范围/℃?54~+85?54~+85
                  抗震性(5 Hz~5 kHz)/gRMS507.7
                  抗冲击性/g5000020000
                  下载: 导出CSV

                  表  2  DARPA新型微惯性传感器AIMS项目指标

                  Table  2.   DARPA new micro-inertial sensor AIMS project indicators

                  性能参数陀螺加速度计
                  目标1目标2目标1目标2
                  量程/°/s±100000±900±50000±60
                  偏置重复性/°/hr0.010.001101
                  偏置环境灵敏度/°/hr0.012e-5100.5
                  标度因数重复性/ppm10.0111
                  标度因素环境
                  灵敏度/ppm
                  1111
                  下载: 导出CSV

                  表  3  不同级别陀螺的性能指标

                  Table  3.   Comparison of performance indexes of different levels of gyroscope

                  性能指标ADIS16137ADIS16136ADXRS649ADIS16135
                  测量范围/°/s100048050000300
                  噪声密度/(°/sec/$\sqrt{{\rm{H}}{\textit{{\rm{z}}} } }$)0.003 60.00360.250.0122
                  非线性/% FS0.050.10.10.008
                  带宽/Hz4003802 000335
                  灵敏度/°/sec/LSB1/6 3007.139x10?5-0.0125
                  角速度随机游走/°/$ \sqrt{h} $0.150.16710.70.75
                  运动中偏置稳定性/°/h2.842006.1
                  抗冲击性/g2 0002 00010 0002 000
                  温度范围/℃?40~+85?40~+70?40~+105?40~+85
                  应用范围精密仪器、平台稳定与
                  控制、机器人
                  井下仪器、工业
                  车辆导航
                  工业应用、
                  运动设备
                  工业车辆导航、
                  精密仪器
                  下载: 导出CSV

                  表  4  不同系列加速度计性能指标对比

                  Table  4.   Comparison of performance indexes of different series accelerometers

                  性能指标ADXL206MS9100系列HS8030系列
                  测量范围/g±5±100± 30
                  偏置稳定性/mg-1522
                  偏置温度系数/(mg/℃)-< 5< 1.5
                  谐振频率/kHz5.5156.3
                  比例因子温度系数/(ppm/℃)-100100
                  分辨率/mg1< 5.5< 1.7
                  非线性/% FS±0.2< 1< 0.9
                  带宽/Hz0.5~2 5000~≥1000~≥100
                  波段噪声频谱密度/(ug/$\sqrt{{\rm{H}}{\textit{{\rm{z}}} } }$)11090018
                  工作温度范围/℃?40~+175?55~+125?55~+125
                  应用范围航空航天和防务陆地、海洋和空中应用的精密惯性系统高冲击惯性测量
                  下载: 导出CSV

                  表  5  磁传感器相关特性对比

                  Table  5.   Correlation characteristics of magnetic sensors

                  性能指标AMRGMRTMRHALL
                  灵敏度较低较高
                  磁场测试范围/Gs0.001~100.1~300.001~2001~1000
                  温度特性/℃<150<150<200<150
                  功耗/mA1~101~100.01~0.15~20
                  成本适中适中
                  下载: 导出CSV

                  表  6  第三代集成技术的对比

                  Table  6.   Comparison of third generation integration technologies

                  时间研究单位集成特点相关参数
                  2011 加州大学Irvine
                  分校[41]
                  采用芯片折叠方式,实现3D空间配置折叠 体积小于0.5 cm3
                  2013 密歇根大学[43] 采用熔融石英多层垂直堆叠 体积小于13 mm3 ,Z轴环形陀螺的Q值为33260,谐振频率为90.717 kHz;Y轴加速度计的Q值为852,谐振频率为14.296 kHz.
                  2015 加州大学Irvine
                  分校[44]
                  采用基于SOI晶圆级的高深宽比的单轴传感器双边制造工艺实现类折纸型的折叠MEMS TIMU微系统 体积小于50 mm3,速度随机游走为0.057 m/s2/$ \sqrt{h} $,偏置不稳定性小于0. 2 mg.
                  2018 佐治亚理工学院[45] 采用单芯片集成和晶圆级封装 整体尺寸为4.5 mm×5.5 mm×1 mm,陀螺仪精度优于10 (°) /h,加速度计精度优于100 ug
                  2019 ADI[47] 采用三维正●交集成 整体模块尺寸为47 mm×44 mm×14 mm,陀螺运动中偏置稳定度为1.8(°)/h,角向随机游走●为0.009(°)/h,加速度计量程为士8 g,运动中偏置稳定度为3.6 ug,速度随机游走(VRW)为0.008 m/s2 $\sqrt{h} $.
                  2020 佐治亚理工
                  学院[48]
                  采用具有改进纳米间隙传感器设计的密封MEMS单片IMU 角度随机@游走为0.06°/$ \sqrt{h} $,偏置不稳定性为0.85°/h;3轴加速度计的带宽大于10 kHz,分辨率低于10 ug/$ \sqrt{H{\textit{z}}} $
                  下载: 导出CSV
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                出版历程
                • 收稿日期:  2022-09-26
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                • 网络出版日期:  2023-01-18

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