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                大面积处理芯片嵌入式微流体冷却技术

                杨宇驰 吕佩珏 杜建宇 李沫潼 杨宇东 潘鹏辉 郑德印 张驰 吴道伟 王玮

                杨宇驰,吕佩珏,杜建宇,等.大面积处理芯片嵌入式微流体冷却技术[J]. 微电子学与计算机,2023,40(1):105-123 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0765
                引用本文: 杨宇驰,吕佩珏,杜建宇,等.大面积处理芯片嵌入式微流体冷却技术[J]. 微电子学与计算机,2023,40(1):105-123 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0765
                YANG Y C,LYU P J,DU J Y,et al. Embedded microfluidic cooling technology for large-area processing chips[J]. Microelectronics & Computer,2023,40(1):105-123 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0765
                Citation: YANG Y C,LYU P J,DU J Y,et al. Embedded microfluidic cooling technology for large-area processing chips[J]. Microelectronics & Computer,2023,40(1):105-123 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0765

                大面积处理芯片嵌入式微流体冷却技术

                doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0765
                详细信息
                  作者简介:

                  杨宇驰:男,(1996-),博士研究生. 研究方向为大功率芯片的热管理技术

                  吕佩珏:女,(1999-),硕士研究生. 研究方向为嵌入式微流体冷却∴可靠性

                  杜建宇:男,(1998-),博士研究生. 研究方向◆为小热点热管理技术

                  李沫潼:女,(1998-),博士研究生. 研究方向为工程热物理

                  杨宇东:男,(1991-),博士研究生. 研究方向为三维堆叠结构热管理技术

                  潘鹏辉:男,(1984-),博士研究生. 研究方向为三维封装工艺开发

                  郑德印:男,(1990-),博士. 研究方向为自输运蒸发冷却√技术

                  张驰:女,(1991-),博士. 研究方向为微孔结构散热的开发和表征

                  吴道伟:男,(1982-),博士. 研究方向为三维封装工艺整合

                  王玮:男,(1977-),博士,教授. 研究方向为芯片热管理技术. E-mail:w.wang@pku.edu.cn

                • 中图分类号: TP302;TN406

                Embedded microfluidic cooling technology for large-area processing chips

                • 摘要:

                  随着集成电路制程趋于极限,登纳德缩放■定律逐步失效,芯片的功率密度逐渐提升,尤其是在5G、物联网以及高性能计算快速发展的驱动下,单芯片面积也在增大,热耗散问题日趋严重,传统的冷却方式已无法保证芯片的可靠工作. 将热沉制备在芯片内部可以避免封装材料的导热热阻▼和多层界面热阻,提升冷却性能和冷却效率. 学术界针对芯片的嵌入式微流体冷却开展了大量卓有成效的研究和探索,不断提出新型通道结构设计方案,包括平行长直通道、歧管通道、射流通道等. 旨在于优化泵功和热阻,在小压降下实现高效】冷却. 然而,随着芯片面积的增大,在限域空间实现高效冷却将更加困难,工艺难度和制造成本限制了嵌入式液冷的大规模商业化使用,目前在实际IC芯片内演示的冷却方案验◎证了嵌入式】冷却的性能,但复杂度高,兼容性差,冷却性能有待进一步提升. 尤其是在3D封装架构下,需要提出兼容小型化、高密度封装的通道结构,通过协同设计,在保证电学互连的前提下实现层间冷却. 在优化通道结构设计的同时,还需要简化工艺,降低成本,提升嵌入式微流体冷却的工艺可靠性和长期工作可靠性,才能推进嵌入式微流体冷却技术的实际应用.

                   

                • 图 1  过去52年集成芯片内晶☉体管数量[1- 2]

                  Figure 1.  Number of transistors in integrated chips over the last 52 years

                  图 2  芯片时钟频率/热设计功耗随时间发展[4]

                  Figure 2.  Chip clock speed and thermal design power consumption evolves over time

                  图 3  芯片常规封装ㄨ结构

                  Figure 3.  Conventional chip package structure

                  图 4  嵌入式平行长直通道[18]

                  Figure 4.  Embedded straight parallel microchannels

                  图 5  流道结构及参数设计[19-20]

                  Figure 5.  Channel structure and parameter design

                  图 6  直通道3D模型[23]

                  Figure 6.  3D model of the straight channels

                  图 7  交错间断菱形鳍片结构及其温升情况[24]

                  Figure 7.  Staggered interrupted diamond fin structure and the temperature rise

                  图 8  多种扰流柱结构及其流∩阻[30]

                  Figure 8.  Multiple fin structures and their flow resistance

                  图 9  最大热阻随芯片面积而增大[30]

                  Figure 9.  Maximum thermal resistance increases with chip area

                  图 10  歧管结构流道及其流动截面图[32]

                  Figure 10.  Manifold channel and the flow cross section

                  图 11  歧管通道3D模型[33]

                  Figure 11.  3D model of manifold channels

                  图 12  分布式射流冷板设计★结构和实物图[34]

                  Figure 12.  Distributed jet cold plate design structure and physical diagram

                  图 13  侧向供液歧管结构[37]

                  Figure 13.  Lateral fluid supply manifold structure

                  图 14  3D歧管结构[38]

                  Figure 14.  3D manifold structure

                  图 15  多层歧管式微流体冷却通道阵列♀的示意图[39]

                  Figure 15.  Schematic diagram of a multi-layer manifold microfluidic cooling channel array

                  图 16  多层硅基歧管结构[40]

                  Figure 16.  Multi-layer silicon-based manifold structure

                  图 17  不同类型的歧管结构[41- 42]

                  Figure 17.  Different types of manifold structures

                  图 18  歧管通道结♀构[43]

                  Figure 18.  Manifold channel structure

                  图 19  嵌入式冷却加工流程以及通道◥结构和封装结构[46]

                  Figure 19.  Embedded cooling processing and channel / package structures

                  图 20  放射状∴流道刻蚀及封装结构[47]

                  Figure 20.  Radiolucent channel etching and packaging structures

                  图 21  协同设计工艺流程及全波整流器件[48]

                  Figure 21.  Co-design processing and full-wave rectifier devices

                  图 22  冷却模型及实物照【片[53]

                  Figure 22.  Cooling model and photos

                  图 23  3D冷却方案示意图与TSV光学照片[54]

                  Figure 23.  Schematic of 3D cooling solution and optical photos of TSV

                  图 24  3D堆叠嵌入式冷却结构与堆叠后的光学图像[55]

                  Figure 24.  3D stacked embedded cooling structure and optical image after stacking

                  图 25  硅基扇出型嵌入式微流体冷却结构[56]

                  Figure 25.  Embedded silicon based fan-out microfluidic cooling structure

                  图 26  TSV电容与高度的关系和高深宽比TSV结构[59]

                  Figure 26.  TSV capacitance vs. height and high ratio TSV structure

                  图 27  不同直径的粒子轨迹仿真[60]

                  Figure 27.  Simulation of particle trajectories with different diameters

                  图 28  压力分布与通道结构的关系[57]

                  Figure 28.  Relationship between pressure distribution and channel structure

                  图 29  不同出入/液口ω结构的应力分布61

                  Figure 29.  Stress distribution for different inlet and outlet/liquid port structures

                  表  1  常见的TIM及其界面热阻值[10]

                  Table  1.   Common TIM and their interface thermal resistance

                  TIM界面热阻
                  K·cm2/W
                  热通量极限
                  W/cm2(ΔT=60 K)
                  备注
                  导热油脂0.2~1300粘度高
                  橡胶垫1~360固体聚合硅橡胶
                  相变材料0.3~0.7200以蜡为主
                  导热胶0.15~1400含填充料的环氧或硅酮
                  金属焊料0.05~0.11200一般用于首层〗贴装
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                出版历程
                • 收稿日期:  2022-11-22
                • 修回日期:  2022-12-16
                • 网络出版日期:  2023-01-18

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