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                用于高密度集成微系统的微通道散热技术研究进展

                杜鹏 周庆忠 郑涵文 张遇好 李建柱 李宇杰

                杜鹏,周庆忠,郑涵文,等.用于高密度集成微系统的微通道散热技术研究进展[J]. 微电子学与计算机,2023,40(1):87-96 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0810
                引用本文: 杜鹏,周庆忠,郑涵文,等.用于高密度集成微系统的微通道散热技术研究进展[J]. 微电子学与计算机,2023,40(1):87-96 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0810
                DU P,ZHOU Q Z,ZHENG H W,et al. Research progress of microchannel cooling technology for high-density microsystems[J]. Microelectronics & Computer,2023,40(1):87-96 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0810
                Citation: DU P,ZHOU Q Z,ZHENG H W,et al. Research progress of microchannel cooling technology for high-density microsystems[J]. Microelectronics & Computer,2023,40(1):87-96 doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0810

                用于高密度集成微系统的微通道散热技术研究进展

                doi: 10.19304/J.ISSN1000-7180.2022.0810
                基金项目: 山东省自然科学基金面上项目(ZR2021ME089)
                详细信息
                  作者简介:

                  杜鹏:男,(1999-),硕士研究生. 研究▅方向为大功率器件/系统高效散热设计

                  周庆忠:男,(1999-),硕士研究生. 研究方向为多物理场耦合模拟

                  郑涵文:男,(2000-),硕士研究生. 研究方向为先进封装╲材料

                  通讯作者:

                  女,(1975-),博士,教授,研究方向为先进封装材料与封装技术。E-mail:liyujie@hit.edu.cn

                • 中图分类号: TK124

                Research progress of microchannel cooling technology for high-density microsystems

                • 摘要:

                  随着电子产品向小型化、多功能、大功率发展以及集成度的不断提高,必然会带来热量更为集中、热流密度不断升高的问题. 为保证可靠工作,实现电子产品,尤其是高密度集成微系统的高效散热就显得尤为重要. 与传统的散热技术相比,微通道散热器可直接集成在器件/系统基板内,制造工艺兼容性好,散热路径短、散热能力强,特别适用于高密度集成微系统的热管控. 本文综述了微通道散热器传热传质特性的表↑征、影响因素及强化方法。对微通道结构进行优化设计、采用以纳米流体为代表的高性能冷却介质是提高微通道散热器综合散热性能的主要手段. 目前在复杂三维微通道结构的制造及高稳定纳米流体性能调控等方面还存在诸多问题. 深入研究相关制造工艺技术和传热传质机理,将有利于进一步拓展微通道散热技术在高密度集成微系统热管控领域的实际应用.

                   

                • 图 1  FCOL封装过程[6]

                  Figure 1.  FCOL process[6]

                  图 2  强迫液冷散热典型结构

                  Figure 2.  Typical design of forced liquid cooling

                  图 3  重力热管典型结构[8]

                  Figure 3.  Typical structure of gravity heat pipes[8]

                  图 4  不同散热方式对应的热流密度范围[8]

                  Figure 4.  The range of heat flux corresponding to different heat dissipation methods[8]

                  图 5  微通道热沉基本结构

                  Figure 5.  The basic structure of microchannel heat sinks

                  图 6  各类散热技术对应的传热系数对比[10]

                  Figure 6.  Heat transfer coefficients achieved by various heat dissipation technologies[10]

                  图 7  不同形状的微通道结构

                  Figure 7.  Microchannels with different shapes

                  图 8  具有仿生拓扑结构的微通道[18]

                  Figure 8.  Microchannels with biomimetic topology

                  图 9  纳米流体两步法制备过程及分散稳定性控制方法

                  Figure 9.  The two-step preparation process and dispersion stabilization method of nanofluids

                  表  1  不同散热方式对比

                  Table  1.   Different heat dissipation methods

                  散热方式优点缺点
                  自然对流散热结构简单
                  运行可靠
                  散热能力弱
                  强迫液冷散热散热能力较强系统结构复杂
                  体积大
                  无法ㄨ满足高密度集成
                  微系统需求
                  相变散热结构简单、
                  无外部功耗
                  散热能力有限
                  无法满足高密度
                  集成微系统需♂求
                  下载: 导出CSV

                  表  2  不同拓扑结构微通道的热仿真结果[18]

                  Table  2.   Thermal simulation results of microchannels with various topologies

                  拓扑结构芯片最高温度/℃压降/kPa
                  5W10W20W40W
                  河流网络29.438.857.795.4148.1
                  矩形平直28.737.755.390.797.1
                  昆虫翅脉28.336.753.486.7110.5
                  叶脉28.136.452.785.596.2
                  仿蜂窝27.936.252.484.990.8
                  蜘蛛网27.635.751.482.893.1
                  下载: 导出CSV

                  表  3  常压30℃时传统冷却介质的物理参数对比

                  Table  3.   Physical parameters of conventional coolants at atmospheric pressure and 30℃

                  物化性能乙二醇导热油
                  (以】煤油为例)
                  液态镓
                  导热系数W/(m·K)0.620.250.1540.60
                  比热容kJ/(kg·℃)4.22.72.10.4
                  密度/(g/cm3)1.001.100.805.90
                  粘度/mPa·s1.011.782.011.75
                  沸点/ ℃100197822403
                  熔点/ ℃0-13-8630
                  下载: 导出CSV
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                出版历程
                • 收稿日期:  2022-12-03
                • 修回日期:  2022-12-16
                • 网络出版日期:  2023-01-18

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